Thursday, April 30, 2009

Team Project Results

Okay, after some long deliberation, review and going back over reports sent in, as well a team progress reports from throughout the semester, I have the results below. As you can tell from the grades for the team below, the projects were all uniformly good, though some were better than others. The grading was based on more than just the final reports and team designs, but on all of the reports submitted throughout the semester.

A reminder, the grades listed are team grades, and individual grades may vary depending on contributions and reports (or lack thereof), and reports from the team captains about how team members performed. Everyone should be proud of the jobs they did and how the projects came out. Many were truly creative ideas and discussions about how their new technology would change the world if implemented.

I do admit there is a tie for first place, with two teams receiving A grades. Those teams captains are both exempt from taking the final exam. I also decided that no team captain will be punished with a lower grade than their overall team grade. *If you are unclear on whether you should take the final or not, please email me at my Florida Tech address.*

If you want to discuss your team's grade, I will be in my office on Monday from 2-3:15, and Thursday morning from 10:30 to noonish.

Again, great jobs everyone!

-----------------
Team 1 (Johnson, Wrolson, Stafford) A-/92
Team 1A (Kennedy, Jones, Aia, Bates) B/85
Team 2 (Beckwith, Harrigan, O'Donnell) A/95
Team 2A (Duro, Naranjo, Williams, Morozko) A/95
Team 3 (Roach, Merkatoris, Soto) A-/92
Team 3A (Gobish, Preston, Majoris, Lachhman) B/85
Team 4 (Ebberts, Blanchard) B /85
Team 4A (Tan, Sosa-Goth, Cyr, Wachtler) B+/88
Team X (McFadden, Turner, Burdette) B+/88

If your name is not on the list above, please contact me below. I will have blog grades done by the beginning of the week and you will receive an individual email with that grade.

Wednesday, April 29, 2009

Final Exam Questions

Here are the long awaited final exam questions. You must turn in a typed copy of your answers by 12 pm (noon) on Thursday, May 7th. Late exams will be docked one letter grade for every hour they are late; no exam will be accepted past 5 pm. Please bring the exams to me personally (Crawford 625) or place in my mailbox opposite the elevators on the 6th floor of Crawford. Do not submit online!

The length of your answers may vary, depending on how well you decided to answer the questions. Any quotations need to be properly cited. Do not copy the answer from the book(s). These questions are usually part think piece, part historical. If you any questions, please send me an email.

YOU MUST ANSWER ONE QUESTION FROM EACH SECTION!

1.) Medicine and Modernity

A. Discuss the rise of tropical medicine as a speciality in the 19th and 20th centuries. What were some of the problems these new specialists had to face? How did exploration and travel in various parts of the world create new challenges for western medicine, not only a 100 years ago, but today as well?

B. By the end of the 20th century, medicine had become a "proverbial Leviathan" according to Roy Porter, comparable in size to that of the military as far as government intervention was concerned, and in many cases no less business- and money oriented than today's large corporation. How and why did medicine transform itself into a proverbial "industrial-medical" complex during the 20th century? Is this a good thing for western society?

2) Scientific Questions Big and Small

C. John Gribbin calls the "last hurrah of classical science" the transformation of geology into geophysics. Discuss this transformation in the 19th century and 20th centuries, not only briefly explaining the transformative process, but also what was being discussed by these new scientists. How do discussions by scientists seeking to explain the ice ages give us insight into the current debate about global warming?

D. Discuss briefly the developments in biology, from Mendel to the Human Genome Project. How do these discoveries shape how we see ourselves? How might current research into DNA, RNA and genetic material effect Darwin's ideas about natural selection?

3) Global Technology

E. How do the Internet, McDonald's and Hollywood lead to the creation of a "Global Culture" based in part on technology and the benefits of science? What is this supposed global culture argued about by pundits from all sides of the political spectrum? Is there really a global technology and culture for the 21st century? Explain.

Paul Tutmarc

Paul Tutmarc was an American inventor who lived from 1896 to 1972. He is credited for inventing the modern day Bass Guitar. He also created many electrically amplified lap string guitars and double-basses. As opposed to the double-bass which is played vertically, the bass guitar is played horizontally and is in the shape of a 6 string guitar. Tutmarc was born in Minnesota and began playing multiple instruments at an early age. In his 20's he became known for his tenor voice and began working in radio and theater. In his 30's he began experimenting with amplification and "pick-ups". He invented the "Electric Bass Fiddle", a horizontal bass instrument with frets and electric pickups. It predated the Fender "Precision" Bass by a decade and a half.

Paul Tutmarc
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Paul_tutmarc.jpg

The Electric Bass Fiddle
http://www.bassic.ch/i_his_av.asp

Modern Day Bass Guitar
http://www.fender.com/news/index.php?display_article=78

Louis Goldenberg -- The Washing Mashine

as early as 1904, electric washing machines were being discussed in magazines and newspapers. The first person to invent. since Goldenberg was working under Ford, the Ford motor company had rights to the patent. Goldenberg was from New Brunswick, NJ.

in 1937, a company called Bendix introduced the first washing machine like those of today. it featured a front loader and permanent connections to water supply, the drum lacked a suspension, so during certain cycles, the machine would "walk" much like older machines today do.

Unfortunately, it is not well known that Goldenberg is the true inventor of the washing machine, as this invention is commonly credited to Alva J Fisher because he was the first to create a washing machine with a round drum, but not the first electric washing machine.

Useful Information
http://gadgets.softpedia.com/news/History-of-the-Washing-Machine-031-01.html

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Luther George Simjian

Luther George Simjian (January 28, 1905-October 23, 1997) grew up in Turkey, but moved to the US at the age of 15. He studied medicine in school, but always had a passion for photography. In 1939, he filed for 20 patents on his new invention, the Bankmatic Automated Teller Machine. A lot of the principles used in today's ATM's are based on the original machines that Simjian issued to City Bank of New York (today Citibank) for field tests. The machines didn't succeed in the beginning due to very little use by customers and thus it wasn't worth it for the banks to use. It wasn't until the later half of the 20th century before the ATM was widely used, but Simjian is rarely given credit for it since his wasn't electronic. Simjian went on to own over 200 patents in his life. He was still inventing until right before his death in 1997.

References:
Wikipedia
About.com

Virgina Apgar

Dr. Virginia Apgar was born in June 1909. In 1949, she became the first female to become a full professor at New York Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. She latered developed the Apgar Scale in 1953, which is still used today. The Apgar scale is used on newborns to measure their health immediately after birth. The Apgar scale is administered to a newborn at one minute after birth and five minutes after birth. It scores the baby's heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, reflex response, and color. This test quickly alerts medical personnel that the newborn baby needs assistance. She died in August 1974.

Link to picture:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Virginia_Apgar.jpg

Alfred Mosher Butts

Alfred Mosher Butts was born on April 13th 1899 in Poughkeepsie. He went to school for architecture at the University of Pennsylvania. As an architect he worked on the Charles W. Berry housing project and the Stanford free Library in his home town of Stanfordville. Besides being the architect he was also the co-founder of the public library. He became unemployed during the depression and began to work on board games. He invented the game scrabble in 1920 although at first it was not called scrabble. It was first called Lexico and then changed to Criss Cross Words but when he found a buyer for the game the name was changed to Scrabble. He sold the game to James Brunot who himself made a few changes to the game before putting it into production. Alfred Mosher Butts died on April 4th 1993.

James Naismith

Born in 1861 in Ontario, Canada, James Naismith is the inventor of basketball. From a young age it was clear that Naismith was better with his hands than at schoolwork. He became an orphan early on in life and spent most of his life living with his aunt and uncle. He graduated from Almonte High School on 1883 and then went on to enter McGill University located in Montreal, Canada. There, he excelled in sports and earned a BA in physical education (1888). He also graduated from the Presbyterian College in Montreal two years later. In 1891 he became the physical education teacher at McGill, eventually becoming the university's first director of athletics. He later left McGill for Springfield, Massachusetts to become a gym teacher at the YMCA International Training School there.

At the YMCA Naismith was faced by restless kids who were restricted to indoor activities through the extended northern winter. Dr. Luther Gulick, the director of Naismith's YMCA ordered Naismith to create a new indoor sport in two weeks. The sport was to be fair, athletically challenging, but not too rough. Naismith considered three guidelines. He examined popular games like rugby, soccer, lacrosse, football, and hockey. He considered the safest of the games and the most injury causing games and came up with the idea to have a game that let players guard each other but allowed physical contact with the other players.

In December of 1891 the first game was played at the YMCA with Naismith watching on. There were thirteen rules. It was nine on nine. The basketball was a soccer ball and the ball went between two peach baskets, not into one of them. The baskets were approximately ten feet off the ground and though the class wasn't exactly enthusiastic, it quickly became one of the center's most popular games. On March 11, 1892 the first public game of basketball was played in Springfield. Basketball was first played at the Olympics in Berlin, Germany in 1936.

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/inventors/indexn.shtml#Naismith
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Naismith

Final Exam Questions

Here are the long awaited final exam questions. You must turn in a typed copy of your answers by 12 pm (noon) on Thursday, May 7th. Late exams will be docked one letter grade for every hour they are late; no exam will be accepted past 5 pm. Please bring the exams to me personally (Crawford 625) or place in my mailbox opposite the elevators on the 6th floor of Crawford. Do not submit online!

The length of your answers may vary, depending on how well you decided to answer the questions. Any quotations need to be properly cited. Do not copy the answer from the book(s). These questions are usually part think piece, part historical. If you any questions, please send me an email.

YOU MUST ANSWER ONE QUESTION FROM EACH SECTION!

1.) Medicine and Modernity

A. Discuss the rise of tropical medicine as a speciality in the 19th and 20th centuries. What were some of the problems these new specialists had to face? How did exploration and travel in various parts of the world create new challenges for western medicine, not only a 100 years ago, but today as well?

B. By the end of the 20th century, medicine had become a "proverbial Leviathan" according to Roy Porter, comparable in size to that of the military as far as government intervention was concerned, and in many cases no less business- and money oriented than today's large corporation. How and why did medicine transform itself into a proverbial "industrial-medical" complex during the 20th century? Is this a good thing for western society?

2) Scientific Questions Big and Small

C. John Gribbin calls the "last hurrah of classical science" the transformation of geology into geophysics. Discuss this transformation in the 19th century and 20th centuries, not only briefly explaining the transformative process, but also what was being discussed by these new scientists. How do discussions by scientists seeking to explain the ice ages give us insight into the current debate about global warming?

D. Discuss briefly the developments in biology, from Mendel to the Human Genome Project. How do these discoveries shape how we see ourselves? How might current research into DNA, RNA and genetic material effect Darwin's ideas about natural selection?

3) Global Technology

E. How do the Internet, McDonald's and Hollywood lead to the creation of a "Global Culture" based in part on technology and the benefits of science? What is this supposed global culture argued about by pundits from all sides of the political spectrum? Is there really a global technology and culture for the 21st century? Explain.

Willis Haviland Carrier - Air Conditioning (1902

Willis Haviland Carrier was the inventor of the concept and design of the air conditioner. Shortly after he graduated from Cornell University the first temperature and humidity controller was in operation. In modern day it is something we take for granted. This concept also stabilized the environment and allowed for 4-color printing.

Willis' formula for designing air conditioners still stand as the fundamental set of equations in the industry. Willis' design allowed for better storage of other temperature controlled substances that could not normally be stored in hot, humid conditions. Willis did not invent the first structure to have this system but he was the first successful one.

Click here to view a picture of Willis

References:
http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa081797.htm

Woodland/ Silver

The first way to identify products was through punch cards. These were first introduced during the great depression, but failed soon after due to the high cost and extra manual labor. This was the case until Norman Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver first introduced the UPC Coding. The first UPC Bar Code was first introduced as a “bulls eye code”. It was a series of rings of different thicknesses that were printed with infrared ink. On October 20, 1949 they patented the bulls eye code, but this time it could be scanned with regular light and from multiple directions.
The UPC Bar Codes were a value to the sales, transportation, airlines, trade, and everywhere in-between. The bar codes were first invented in 1949, but were not in full use until the 1960’s. Silver was a graduate of Drexel Institute of Technology and Woodland who was working for Drexel, who decided to move into his parents place in Florida to further work on the UPC Bar Coding.

Bar Code
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:UPC-A-036000291452.png

Silver
Not Found

Woodland
http://www.moah.org/exhibits/archives/brains/images/woodland.jpg

Edwin Perkins

Edwin Perkins was born in 1889, in Lewis, Idaho. While living in Hastings, Nebraska, Perkins worked in his father's general store and sold Jell-O. In 1927, Perkins developed a powdered soft drink mix and named in Kool-Ade. His new drink was marketed in grocery stores and through mail order catalogs. Within a few years, the name was changed to Kool-Aid and sold world wide. Kool-Aid has now evolved into a household name. There were originally six flavors, but now there are more than 30 flavors.


Kool-Aid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kool-Aid.svg

Monday, April 27, 2009

Lewis Nixon (1861-1940)

Lewis Nixon was born in Leesburg, Virginia in 1961. He died at the age of 79 in 1940. He was a shipbuilding executive, naval architect, and political activist.
Nixon graduated first in his class from the US Naval Academy in 1882 and was sent to study naval architecture at the Royal Naval College. He was appointed an assistant naval constructor with the rank of lieutenant. Later, he was assigned to the John Roach & Sons shipyard in Pennsylvania, allowing him to participate in the design and construction of three protected cruisers of the new steel navy: USS Atlanta, USS Boston, and USS Chicago. He also helped in designing the Indiana-class battleships.
Later, Lewis resigned and started working as Superintendent of Construction in William Cramp and Sons Shipbuilding Company. He started his own business in 1895 by leasing the Crescent Shipyard. Nixon started this new shipyard with Arthur Leopold Busch, the naval architect responsible for the development of the United States Navy's first submarines. The yard built many vessels, including USS Florida (BM-9) and USS Annapolis (PG-10). The famous USS Holland (SS-1) was one of the creations of that shipyard and is a very significant achievement in naval technology. The submarines success led to the order for more submarines of the "Holland Type" by the United States Government. These submarines became America's first fleet of underwater fighting vessels operated by the United States Navy on both coasts.


References
http://inventors.about.com/od/sstartinventions/a/sonar_history.htm
http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Lewis_Nixon_%28naval_architect%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_Nixon_(naval_architect)

Lewis Nixon (1861-1940)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lewis_Nixon.jpg

Indiana-class battleships.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USS_Indiana_BB-1.jpg

Katherine J. Blodgett (1898-1979)

Katharine Blogett was born on January 10, 1898 in Schenectady, NY. She was an accomplished young woman, receiving a bachelors degree from Bryn Mawr in 1917 and received her Master's degree at age 19 from the University of Chicago. Blogett was the first woman to earn a P. H. D. in physics from Cambridge University in 1926. As the daughter of a well known attorney for General Electric, George Blogett, she had been given the opportunity to work with the research chemist Irving Langmuir at age 18. Shortly after receiving her Masters degree, she became the first female hired to work as a scientist for General Electric laboratory in Schenectady.

In the late 1930s, Katharine developed a way to use Langmuir’s monomolecular coating as a glare reduction for glass. She developed a way to add molecule-thick layers of the coating to glass and discovered a thickness of barium stearate film which would cancel out the reflection of clear glass. The result of her discovery was the first 100% transparent, invisible glass. She received a patent for her discovery in 1938 and her glass was applied to eyeglasses, telescopes, microscopes, and camera projector lenses throughout the world.

http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/images/KJB1.gif
http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/history/blodgett1.jpg

Sunday, April 26, 2009

Robert Goddard


Robert Goddard - Rocket Propulsion

Dr. Robert Goddard was a physicist who taught at both Worcester Polytechnic Institute and Clark University, and is considered to be the “father of modern rocket propulsion.” His research at those universities, as well as for various private and government organizations, was focused on the development of rocket technology. He gained early, widespread notoriety on the subject based on an article that he prepared for publication in a Smithsonian journal at the beginning of 1920. In it, Goddard described the grand potential that rockets possessed and even went so far as to claim their ability to carry a payload to the moon. This claim was seen as an absolutely foolish statement at the time and was publicly ridiculed by the New York Times.

Despite the public criticism of his work, Goddard continued to develop his designs and theories on rocket propulsion. On March 16, 1926 Robert launched his first liquid rocket from small farm in Massachusetts. Though it only flew 41 ft into the air, it proved that his concepts had merit, which helped him to continue to secure funding for his research. Interesting, though Goddard contacted the US Army concerning the military applications of his rockets and even presented several Army officials with videos of his launches, he was essentially ignored. Ironically, the German government was very aware of the military applications of his rocket technology so they enlisted their engineers to attempt to gain technical information from him. Robert closely guarded his technical data and never discussed sensitive rockets details with any of the German’s, but by gathering Goddard’s published information the German military was able to learn enough to build the infamous V2 rockets with many of his design components.


References:

http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/about/dr_goddard.html

http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/goddard.html

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Goddard.html

Eduard Binney

Every body's got them. or at least had them at one point in their life. box of 16, box of 24, 48, 64, 96, and if you are really lucky (like me) you had a box of 120. Im talking about crayons. and not those cheap imitation bastards, I'm talking the good stuff. Crayola.
Now, i've been lucky enough to visit the Crayola crayon factory in Pennsylvania. That place is baddass, and of course its located at the birthplace of Crayola.
Well, Crayola was born in Pa. but it really all started in NY where Joseph Binney owned a company that was responsible to adding black and red coloring to things like rubber car tires, and red paint. his son (Edward) and his nephew decided to expand the business to include other products such as shoe polish as well. The cousins bought a mill in Pa, and started producing pencils for school children, including award winning dustless chalk. the company that Edward's father ran used carbon to color the car tires and paint black, and carbon was far to toxic for school children. With  motivation to produce safe art supplies in a variety of colors, the cousins worked with wax development and color mixing to produce (drumroll please) Crayola Crayons.
The cousins went on to broaden thair art supply empire by adding paints, chalk, glue, markers, and other art supplies. crayons remain the corner stone of their work, as new colors are still added every year.

http://inventors.about.com/od/cstartinventions/a/crayons.html

http://www.crayola.com/corporate/timeline.cfm?n_id=77

Friday, April 24, 2009

Clifford Berry

Clifford Berry was born on April 19, 1918 in Gladbrook, Iowa. He was born 1st of four children, to a father who owned an electrical appliance repair store. His father, Fred Gordon Berry, had the first radio in Gladbrook. Clifford took an interest in the radio, and soon his father started teaching him about electrical appliances. Upon his graduation from high school, Clifford Berry went to Iowa State College to study Electrical engineering. Once in graduate school, together with his professor John Vincent Atanasoff, he created the Atanasoff-Berry Computer. This would be the world's first electronic digital computer, that could not be programmed. The computer was created to solve systems of linear equations. The computer was tested in 1942, with success. Despite this, when World War 2 came, Atanasoff was called off to other assignments, and Clifford Berry had to stop work on the Computer. He died suddenly in October 1963, at the age of 45.

Atanasoff-Berry Computer
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Atanasoff-Berry_Computer_at_Durhum_Center.jpg

Clifford Berry
http://www.kerryr.net/images/pioneers/gallery/berry_lg.jpg

Sources
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atanasoff%E2%80%93Berry_Computer
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifford_Berry

Thursday, April 23, 2009

Leighton Wilkie

Leighton Wilkie was born in Minnesota in 1900. After college Wilkie devoted his life to manufactoring. He wanted to develope a better process for stamping metal parts. Wilkie successful found a way to improve the process and founded Continental Machines Inc. With his newly created company Wilkie was able to invent a new way of cutting metal called a band saw. This saw soon became a standard tool in industries of all kinds. Wilkie had a giant heart one of which had a passion for helping people and the industry that he fell in love with at a young age. Wilkie sponsored and raised many for many different museums and educational foundations. With his huge reach and genorous hand Wilkie gained fame in many circles. He continued on to become the founder of the international DoALL group of companies. Wilkie died in 1993 due to an illness but his companies and invention still live on and play a huge part in lives around the world.

http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/16/obituaries/leighton-a-wilkie-tool-manufacturer-and-an-inventor-93.html

http://www.americanprecision.org/option,com_easygallery/act,photos/cid,88/Itemid,78/


http://www.stoneageinstitute.org/Images/Wilkie%20portrait%20164%20cropped%20and%20contrast.jpg

http://www.old-woodworking-tools.net/images/delta-14-band-saw-1947-before-8258.jpg

Alfred Carlton Gilbert

Alfred Carlton Gilbert was born in Salem, Oregon on Feb 13 or 14, 1884. He began his college education at Pacific University, and transferred to Yale in 1902. He graduated with a degree in sports medicine. During his time in school he worked as a magician. He was very athletic, setting records in chin-ups and running long dive. He helped develop pole vaulting, and tied for gold in the 1908 Olympics.

In 1913, he invented the erector set. The idea came from seeing steel girders along the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railway. He also developed chemistry sets, microscope sets, and model train sets. In 1918, he fought to keep manufacturing toys during WWI. Gilbert also co founded the Toy Manufacturers of America organization. He died in Boston, Massachusetts on Jan 24, 1961.

Photo of Gilbert: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b5/AlfredCarltonGilbert_c1915.jpg
Photo of Erector Set: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Erector_Set_Ad_1922.JPG

Sources:
http://inventors.about.com/od/estartinventions/a/erector_set.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Carlton_Gilbert

Otto Frederick Rohwedder- Sliced Bread

Otto was born July 7, 1880 in Des Moines, Iowa. He grew up leading a fairly dull life in the small town of Davenport, Iowa. He attended the Northern Illinois College of Ophthalmology and Otology in Chicago and received a degree in optics in 1900. Otto first passion was working as a jeweler. He owned and operated three jewelry stores in Missouri, which he sold when he came up with a brilliant idea- sliced bread.

He started working on his bread-slicing machine in the 1910s.  His first machines sliced the bread and held the slices together with metal pins. This prototype was not widely appreciated. He had the concept almost perfected when his factory and blueprints were lost in a fire in 1917. By 1927 he had recreated the invention with improvements and began manufacturing and advertising for his new product. The new bread-slicer also packaged the loafs in plastic to keep them from going stale. It was used commercially for the first time in 1928 by the Chillicothe Baking Company on its Kleen Maid Sliced Bread. Once people became more aware of his invention, it became in high demand and Otto sold his bread-slicing machine to Micro-Westco Company. Some of the products success can be attributed to the introduction of the pop-up toaster. These two inventions spurred each other’s popularity. Gustav Papendick improved on Otto’s design by inventing mechanized wrapping machines. “Now that’s the best thing since sliced bread!”

Otto lived most of his life in Michigan with his wife, Carrie, and his daughter, Margaret. Otto died November 8, 1960 in Concord, Michigan. An original model of Otto’s bread-slicing machine can still be seen at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, D.C.

Otto Picture 1

Otto Picture 2

Sliced Bread

Slicing Machine

Unicorn